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For natural gemstones, clarity alludes to the number of external or internal flaws i.e. inclusions of a particular stone. Almost every gemstone has inclusions in it and it is very difficult to find a near flawless gemstones and in fact finding a flawless gemstone is even more difficult than finding a near flawless diamond. The process through which the natural gemstones are formed within the earth determines the number of flaws it will have. Emerald is a type of gemstone which is formed under very fierce circumstances and hence these stones are almost always included.
Gemstones that are dark in color (e.g. purple amethyst, red-garnet, blue topaz etc.) have inclusions in very high amount in them but still its monetary value does not deteriorate because these inclusions are all masked by the depth of their color. The gemstones that are light in color will show inclusions more clearly than the darker gemstones. Sapphires are the type of stones that seldom display the high clarity if fine diamonds. No matter how good the sapphire is it will always have inclusions in it when viewed at 10x magnification.
This is the reason more often than not sapphires have to be treated before they could be sold.
The gemstones that are formed under processes in which their inclusions are vaguely noticeable or in other words are “eye clean” fall under this category.
The gemstones that have been formed under processes which are very extreme which results in them having more inclusions which are noticeable fall under this category.
The gemstones that have been formed under processes that are extremely severe which results in them having inclusions in highly noticeable amount fall under this category.
Colored gemstones are available in all sorts of shapes and cuts which are specially made to amplify their natural beauty. The higher quality cuts reflect and amplify light in an even manner without any windowing or darkness in the gemstone. There are no specific rules when it comes to cutting the gemstones, the cutter decides based on the place of inclusions in the gemstone. This is to eradicate the flaws present in the gemstone as much as possible and to form the best possible stone.
The facets that are present on the bottom or pavilion reflect light internally while the facets that are situated on the crown or top region have the function of capturing light. Visual effects are produced by the capturing and reflecting light.
In order to allow light to refract through the stone and reflect off the surface the gemstones are polished in a manner which gives reflective finish. Several materials ike fine diamond grades, metal oxides (aluminium/ferric oxide), felt, leather, wood etc. are used to polish a gemstone. Its polish is mainly connected to its sparkle